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Special Collection: Reproductive Justice & Violence Against Women: Understanding the Intersections

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Introduction | Back to top

The purpose of this special collection is to provide resources and an introduction to reproductive justice, focusing particularly on the connections between the elimination of reproductive oppression and domestic and sexual violence. Included is a basic definition of reproductive justice, information about the development and the history of the Reproductive Justice Movement, and related resources. Highlighted in this collection are resources that relate to the holistic well-being of women, families, and communities as it pertains to violence against women and reproductive rights and health. "Reproductive Justice & Violence Against Women: Understanding the Intersections" makes connections between the Reproductive Justice Movement and the Sexual Violence and Domestic Violence Movements in the United States to demonstrate the necessity of collaboration.

This collection was developed by the National Sexual Violence Resource Center, the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, and the Women of Color Network. Additional resources, including book titles, articles, reports, and journals, can be found by browsing the library at the National Sexual Violence Resource Center or sending information requests to resources@nsvrc.org.

We would like to thank SisterSong Women of Color Reproductive Health Collective, especially Loretta Ross, and the Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice for their years of dedication to and development of reproductive justice as a framework and movement and for all of their resources that are part of this collection.

Defining Reproductive Justice | Back to top

Reproductive justice is an analytical framework or theory, a movement, and a practice that works to protect and guarantee women's rights and the full achievement of human rights. The term “reproductive justice” was claimed and coined by women of color as a result of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development hosted in Cairo. It integrates reproductive health with social justice and human rights. The term reproductive justice represents a holistic view that acknowledges diverse factors that intersect in multiple ways to affect women and their reproductive rights.

The reproductive justice analysis understands that women, and particularly women of color and their communities, experience reproductive oppression. Reproductive oppression is "the controlling and exploiting of women, girls, and individuals through our bodies, sexuality, labor, and reproduction (both biological and social) by families, communities, institutions and society" (Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice, 2005 and Loretta J. Ross, SisterSong, 2006). Reproductive justice, on the other hand, emphasizes that a woman's reproductive health is not only based on individual choice but also a variety of factors and conditions within one's experiences, family, and community. It cannot be separated or put into a hierarchy of oppressions. Just as a person's reproductive health experiences cannot be separated from mental, social, economic, familiar, communal, or environmental well-being. This inter-sectional paradigm addresses that systems of oppression simultaneously discriminate based on race, gender, sexuality, class, ability, age, immigration status, linguistic abilities, and other factors. These intersecting forms of oppression and discrimination have historically resulted in power, privilege, and resources for a select few and limited access to power and resources to a large majority, including women, women of color, women in poverty, and other groups. This analysis highlights systems of oppression as both a result and tool of “the regulation of reproduction and exploitation of women’s bodies and labor” (Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice, 2005).

Glossary of Key Terms

Reproductive Health [focus - service delivery]: Reproductive health addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. Reproductive health, therefore, implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. (World Health Organization)

Reproductive Rights [focus - legal issues]: Reproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence. (World Health Organization)

Reproductive Justice [focus - movement building]: The complete physical, mental, spiritual, political, economic, and social well-being of women and girls that will be achieved when women and girls have the economic, social, and political power and resources to make healthy decisions about their bodies, sexuality and reproduction for themselves, their families, and their communities. (Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice)

Reproductive Oppression: The controlling and exploiting of women, girls, and individuals through their bodies, sexuality, labor, and reproduction (both biological and social) by families, communities, institutions, and society. (Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice & SisterSong)

Reproductive Control: Interference with a woman's reproductive autonomy, including pregnancy-promoting behaviors as well as control and abuse during pregnancy in an attempt to influence the pregnancy outcome. Reproductive control can be exerted upon women from various sources including their partners, parents, peers, and the medical establishment. (Ann M. Moore, Lori Frohwirth, & Elizabeth Miller)

NOTE: "Reproductive control" may also reference a woman's ability to have full autonomy regarding her reproductive health.
Human Rights: Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. (United Nations)

Reproductive Justice Frameworks | Back to top

Reproductive justice addresses reproductive oppression by simultaneously applying three main frameworks at local, state, national, and international levels. The frameworks are Reproductive Health, Reproductive Rights, and Reproductive Justice. In other words, reproductive justice advocacy includes the frameworks of service delivery, legal rights or advocacy, and movement building. These frameworks provide an inclusive approach to systems change that moves the debate away from individual rights to an inclusive vision of “better lives for women, healthier families, and sustainable communities” (Loretta J. Ross, SisterSong, 2006).

The attainment of this vision requires that we work in collaboration as social justice movements to engage in effective movement building, systems change, advocacy, and service delivery at the local, state, national, and international levels. Reproductive justice specifically calls on movements in the United States to also look globally at women’s movements that inclusively address reproductive health and rights by framing it as a human rights issue, acknowledging that any human rights violation puts in jeopardy all human rights. In addition to human rights, the well-being of women must be conceptualized as “complete physical, mental, spiritual, political, social, environmental and economic well-being” (Loretta J. Ross, SisterSong, 2006). Reproductive justice integrates social justice issues and recognizes that we are stronger when we collaborate and work together.

Reproductive Justice- Building upon Reproductive Health and Reproductive Rights | Back to top

The reproductive justice framework is a distinct approach that builds upon reproductive health and reproductive rights, introducing an inter-sectional theory that underscores how race, class, and gender affect individual’s and community’s equitable access to resources. The reproductive justice movement addresses reproductive oppression and focuses on organizing women, girls and their communities to challenge structural power inequalities.

These resources provide a broad and detailed explanation of reproductive justice and give an overview of the history of the movement.

  • Understanding Reproductive Justice | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by Loretta J. Ross, SisterSong Women of Color Reproductive Health Collective (May 2006)
    This resource documents the development and history of the Reproductive Justice Movement and outlines the importance and necessity of the analysis.
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  • Women of Color and the Struggle for Reproductive Justice | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by Law Students for Reproductive Justice (2010)
    This article outlines linkages between reproductive oppression, women of color, and communities of color. Statistics are included.
    + View Summary
  • Reproductive Justice 101: A Select History | PDF PDF (44 p.)
    by Western States Center (2008)
    This interactive timeline - from 1654 onward - is a great tool for starting dialogues within organizations about the issue. Printed in both English and Spanish.
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  • Undivided Rights: Women of Color Organize for Reproductive Justice | HTML HTML (15 p.)
    by Jael Silliman, Marlene Gerber Fried, Loretta Ross, and Elena R. Gutierrez, Center for American Progress (October 2004)
    This article gives a brief account of the largely unknown activist history of women of color organizing for reproductive justice.
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  • Definition and measurement of reproductive health | PDF PDF (5 p.) HTML HTML (5 p.)
    by Ritu Sadana, World Health Organization (2002)
    This article issues a research challenge to estimate reproductive health instead of morbidity; concluding that an appropriate definition of reproductive health and relevant operational indicators are needed to measure reproductive health.
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  • Human Rights and Women's Reproductive Health | HTML HTML (5 p.)
    by The People's Movement for Human Rights Learning
    This web page provides justification for the human right to reproductive health based on international agreements and treaties. It outlines excerpts from these treaties that are relevant to ensure reproductive rights.
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  • Reproductive Rights are Human Rights | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by SisterSong Women of Color Health Collective (2005) This article outlines that reproductive rights are basic human rights. It serves as a primer for understanding the importance of international treaties, specifically the linkages between reproductive rights and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
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  • A New Vision for Advancing Our Movement for Reproductive Health, Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Justice | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice (2005)
    This article defines reproductive oppression; outlining and providing the three main frameworks to achieve reproductive justice. It describes the problem, the strengths and weaknesses of the struggle, and gives direction and vision for the movement.
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  • Reproductive Justice Briefing Book: A Primer on Reproductive Justice and Social Change | PDF PDF (82 p.)
    by SisterSong Women of Color Reproductive Health Collective & the Pro-Choice Public Education Project
    This book is a collection of 46 articles written by activists and scholars. It is a primer on reproductive justice and intentionally gives voice to often marginalized communities.
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  • Reproductive Health of Urban American Indian and Alaska Native Women: Examining Unintended Pregnancy, Contraception, Sexual History and Behavior, and Non-Voluntary Sexual Intercourse | PDF PDF (164 p.)
    by Urban Indian Health Institute (2010)
    This report presents baseline information on the reproductive health of urban American Indian and Alaska Native Women (AI/AN) nationwide.
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Paradigm of Intersectionality- A Holistic Framework to Ensure Complete Well-Being | Back to top

As Audre Lorde states, “oppression and the intolerance of difference come in all shapes and sexes and colors and sexualities; and that among those of us who share the goals of liberation and a workable future for our children, there can be no hierarchies of oppression” (Homophobia and Education. New York: Council on Interracial Books for Children, 1983). The reproductive justice movement works from an analysis or paradigm of intersectionality. At its core, reproductive justice articulates that reproductive oppression is a product and tool of other forms of oppression such as sexism, homophobia, racism, classism, ableism, and others. Therefore to ensure the well-being of women, our families, and our communities we have to collaborate with all social justice struggles to end injustice. This section outlines resources that relate to the holistic well-being of humanity in relationship to reproductive justice. The resources are divided into two sections: Physical, Mental, Spiritual and Political, Social, Environmental.

Physical, Emotional/Mental, Spiritual
  • A Call to Incorporate a Reproductive Justice Agenda into Reproductive Health Clinical Practice and Policy | PDF PDF (4 p.) HTML HTML (4 p.)
    by Melissa L. Gilliam, Amy Neustadt, and Rivka Gordon, Contraception Editorial, Association of Reproductive Health Professionals (April 2009)
    This journal article articulates the relationship between reproductive justice and clinical care. It outlines the ways that a reproductive justice framework is useful for clinical practice and policy to ensure the well-being of women and girls.
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  • The Psychological Consequences of Sexual Trauma | PDF PDF (10 p.) HTML HTML
    by Nicole P. Yuan, Mary P. Koss, and Mirto Stone, VAWnet: The National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women (March 2006)
    This document describes current research findings on the effects of childhood and adulthood sexual victimization on women's mental health. Existing data on understudied communities and risk factors for mental health problems are discussed.
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  • Violence Against Women and the Role of Religion | PDF PDF (8 p.) HTML HTML
    by Rev. Dr. Marie Fortune and Rabbi Cindy Enger, VAWnet: The National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women (March 2005)
    This document provides an overview of some of the basic issues and questions that confront religiously identified women who have experienced abuse, and outlines strategies for clergy and secular anti-violence advocates to reach out to one another.
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  • What the Goddesses Left Behind-Birth Justice in the Reproductive Justice Movement | PDF PDF (1 p.)
    by Lauren Clark, SisterSong (Fall 2009)
    This article discusses spirituality and health, specifically noting that that reproductive justice affirms feminist and natural practices and methods with regards to our bodies and health.
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  • Our Collective Spiritual Journey | PDF PDF (1 p.)
    by Chalchiuhtlicue Rosalinda Montéz Palacios, SisterSong (Summer 2004)
    This article discusses the Reproductive Justice Movement and personal journey or spiritual transformation. It outlines the spiritual practice of the circle ritual and consciousness building.
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Political, Economic, Environmental and Social
  • Investing in Reproductive Justice for All: Toward a U.S. Foreign Policy on Comprehensive Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights | PDF PDF (64 p.)
    by Center for Health and Gender Equity (2009)
    This report outlines an inquiry that studied programs that use comprehensive approaches to sexual and reproductive health and noted issues that arise when programs are not rooted in human rights.
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  • Prop 4 Victory Brief-Reproductive Justice at the Ballot Box | PDF PDF (19 p.)
    by Eveline Shen, Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice (2008)
    This brief discusses Props 4 and 8 in California as catalysts for community organizing, education, and networking; discussing different strategies and ways that leadership and coalitions can be built in communities of color around reproductive justice.
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  • Doubling the Damage: World Bank Climate Investment Funds Undermine Climate and Gender Justice | PDF PDF (27 p.)
    by Anna Rooke, Heinrich Böll Foundation North America (February 2009)
    This report discusses environmental and gender justice in regards to the World Bank Climate Investment Funds’ projects, concluding that these efforts fall short and have the potential of increased harm to the planet and impoverished women.
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  • Environmental & Reproductive Justice-When Movements Join Forces | PDF PDF (1 p.)
    by Women’s Voices for the Earth, SisterSong
    This article discusses the power of uniting movements for a common goal. It outlines that the same chemicals, policies, and politics that are harming the environment are putting women and their children at risk of serious illnesses.
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  • Reproductive Justice, Not Population Control: Breaking the Wrong Links and Making the Right Ones in the Movement for Climate Justice | PDF PDF (16 p.)
    by Betsy Hartmann and Elizabeth Barajas-Roman, PopDev: Hampshire College Population and Development Program (January 2009)
    Outlining the faulty connections between climate change and population growth this paper critiques the blame that is placed on the Global South, and promotes reproductive justice instead of family planning as a model for solutions.
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  • Looking Both Ways: Women's Lives at the Crossroads of Reproductive Justice and Climate Justice | PDF PDF (36 p.)
    by Ann Rojas-Cheatham, Dana Ginn Paredes, Shana Griffin, Aparna Shah, Eveline Shen, Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice (2009)
    This booklet articulates the connection between those most marginalized by climate change and reproductive oppression highlighting the strengths in unifying gender justice and climate justice through a reproductive justice lens.
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  • More than a Choice: A Progressive Vision for Reproductive Health and Rights | PDF PDF (35 p.)
    by Jessica Arons, Center for American Progress (2006)
    Article presents a new vision of reproductive rights that broadens the current discourse beyond the stagnant abortion debate, providing an expanded definition of reproductive rights that equally embraces the rights to have or not have children.
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  • Framing Reproductive Justice | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by Sandra Hinson, Grassroots Policy Project
    This essay discusses how the struggle for reproductive justice takes place in the context of a larger struggle over political power and the creation of a dominant worldview; examines how reproductive rights have been framed by liberals and progressives.
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  • Young Women Speak Out! Perspectives and Implications of Reproductive Health, Rights & Justice Policies | PDF PDF (24 p.)
    by California Latinas for Reproductive Justice (2010)
    This report provides first hand accounts of young Latinas that demonstrate a gap between existing state laws and policies and the haphazard implementation taking place in schools and communities on a wide range of reproductive health concerns.
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Collaboration- A Key Building Block of the Reproductive Justice Movement | Back to top

Reproductive justice work requires building relationships with other movements by drawing connections between reproductive injustice and other social justice issues that impact women of color and marginalized communities' reproductive freedom. The reproductive framework engages with issues such as economic justice, immigrants' rights, domestic violence, sexual violence, labor rights, sex trafficking, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer rights, and environmental justice. By adopting this approach, reproductive justice integrates multiple issues and brings together diverse constituencies to increase the inclusion of all women and builds collective power to dismantle social, political, and economic inequities that prevent women from making healthy decisions about their bodies, sexuality and reproduction.

  • Choosing a Broader Movement: Envisioning Reproductive Justice | PDF PDF (8 p.)
    by Tides Foundation Reproductive Justice Fund (2006)
    This document explains the reproductive justice theoretical framework, as well as provides funding strategies and recommendations for building cross-movement linkages to integrate reproductive justice and other progressive movements.
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  • If You Really Care about Environmental Justice, You Should Care about Reproductive Justice! | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by National Women's Law Center and Law Students for Reproductive Justice
    This article outlines the linkages between reproductive justice and environmental justice. Highlighting how both adopt a social justice analysis and by advancing the reproductive justice principles you are also advancing environmental justice issues.
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  • If You Really Care about Racial Discrimination, You Should Care about Reproductive Justice! | PDF PDF (5 p.)
    by National Women's Law Center and Law Students for Reproductive Justice Associate
    This article outlines linkages between reproductive oppression, racial discrimination, and racial oppression. The resource argues that until racial discrimination is eradicated, Women of Color will suffer reproductive oppression.
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  • Fact Sheet: Immigration Policy and Reproductive Justice | HTML HTML (3 p.)
    by Tanya Doriss (July 2007)
    This article examines the relationship between reproductive justice and immigration policy. The paper identifies anti-immigrant efforts ties to reproductive oppression and its impact on the immigration debate.
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  • Reproductive Justice in the Prison System | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by Law Students for Reproductive Justice (2009)
    This resource highlights the linkages between reproductive justice and the prison system. Statistics are provided on incarcerated women, sexual assault, and abortion in prison.
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Reproductive Justice to End Sexual & Domestic Violence | Back to top

Reproductive justice as a lens and framework has a lot to offer movements that are working for a just and violence free society. The resources below provide information and tools on how to incorporate a reproductive framework to one's work. The materials specifically highlight the connections between reproductive oppression and sexual and domestic violence; demonstrating that when we work towards advancing reproductive justice we are working to eliminate violence against women. Although the resources below provide a good beginning, the materials in this area are limited and much more work is needed to address the interconnection between and integration of a reproductive justice framework and sexual and domestic violence. More information on the linkages between violence and health can be found in the Special Collection: Domestic Violence and Health Care and NSVRC’s Healthcare Initiative Collection.

  • Addressing Violence against Women and Girls in Sexual and Reproductive Health Services | PDF PDF (103 p.)
    by Bonnie L. Shepard, United Nations Populations Fund (2010)
    This guidance document focuses on the integration of violence against women resources into the existing Sexual and Reproductive Health framework.
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  • If You Really Care About Intimate Partner Violence, You Should Care About Reproductive Justice | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by National Women's Law Center and Law Students for Reprodutice Justice (October 2009)
    This article outlines linkages between reproductive oppression and intimate partner violence, highlighting the support a reproductive justice analysis can provide in the work to end domestic violence.
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  • The Facts on Reproductive Health and Violence against Women | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by Futures Without Violence
    This brief provides data on violence against women and reproductive health revealing that domestic violence poses health risks to women of reproductive age.
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  • Male Reproductive Control of Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence in the United States | PDF PDF (20 p.)
    by Ann M. Moore, Lori Frohwirth, & Elizabeth Miller, Guttmacher Institute (2010)
    74% of respondents in this study identified male reproductive control as a tactic of abuse used against them by their intimate partner. The article includes recommendations to help women protect their reproductive health and physical safety.
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  • Making the Connection: Domestic Violence and Public Health, An Evidence Based Training, Part 4: Family Planning | PPT PPT (20 p.)
    by Linda Chamberlain, Futures Without Violence (2004)
    This chapter provides information about the impact of domestic violence on reproductive health.
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  • Sexual Violence Against Women: Impact on High-Risk Health Behaviors and Reproductive Health | PDF PDF (10 p.) HTML HTML
    by Sandra L. Martin and Rebecca J. Macy with contributions from Janice A. Mirabassi, VAWnet: The National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women (June 2009)
    This Applied Research paper provides a brief overview of research on the impact of sexual violence on females’ high-risk health behaviors and reproductive health, focusing on studies of sexual assault or rape experienced primarily during adulthood.
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  • The Facts on Adolescent Pregnancy, Reproductive Risk and Exposure to Dating and Family Violence | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by Futures Without Violence (February 2010)
    Violence limits young women’s ability to manage their reproductive health and exposes them to sexually transmitted diseases. This fact sheet outlines ways that violence affects reproductive health and impacts risky sexual behaviors.
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  • Interpersonal Violence and Adolescent Pregnancy: Prevalence and Implications for Practice and Policy | PDF PDF (48 p.)
    by S. Leiderman and C. Almo (2001)
    This report shows that adolescents who have experienced interpersonal violence are at a higher risk of teen pregnancy. The report recommends strategies to prevent adolescent pregnancy as well as to support pregnant and parenting adolescents.
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  • Preventing Pregnancy from Sexual Assault: Four Action Strategies to Improve Hospital Policies on Provision of Emergency Contraception | PDF PDF (138 p.)
    by National Sexual Violence Resource Center, Education Fund of Family Planning Advocates of NYS and Clara Bell Duval Reproductive Freedom Project (2003)
    This toolkit provides facts about emergency contraception for rape survivors, tools and strategies to assess the need for increased access, and four strategies to increase access: legislation, administrative efforts, litigation and voluntary efforts.
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Movement Building Tools | Back to top

  • The EMERJ Reproductive Justice Lens Toolkit: Identifying reproductive justice issues in your community | PDF PDF (8 p.)
    by Expanding the Movement for Empowerment and Reproductive Justice (2008)
    This toolkit provides resources for people to understand the reproductive justice lens, identify reproductive oppression in their communities, and make connections and alliances across communities and movements for reproductive justice.
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  • Movement Building Indicators | PDF PDF (64 p.)
    by Maria Nakae, Moira Cowman and Eveline Shen, Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice (2009)
    This tool can be used to strengthen organizations' plans and strategies around reproductive justice. It is designed for organizations to access their work; specifically organizations with a reproductive justice lens.
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  • Drawing the Connections: Reproductive Justice and the Global Social Justice Movement | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by Ipas
    This tool provides recommendations, activities, and resources on how to integrate sexual and reproductive rights and justice into the broader global social justice movement.
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Related Organizations, Projects, & Initiatives | Back to top

This section highlights organizations, projects, and initiatives that relate to reproductive justice.

Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice
"ACRJ is a grassroots community-based organization based in Oakland, California. We work with communities and organizations to advance reproductive justice on a local, state and national level. Our two core strategies are community organizing and movement building."

Association of Reproductive Health Professionals
"ARHP is a different kind of medical association. Our members define reproductive health in broad terms and recognize that the best health care is delivered through a team of professionals partnering with an informed patient. We are the association that brings together health care professionals across disciplines and specialties for evidence based training and network building among committed colleagues."

Black Women for Reproductive Justice
"Our mission is to help Black women and girls realize reproductive justice. We seek to build a grassroots constituency organized to collectively affect changes in the public and private institutions and policies that prevent us from obtaining optimum reproductive and sexual health."

California Latinas for Reproductive Justice (CLRJ)
"California Latinas for Reproductive Justice (CLRJ) is a statewide policy and advocacy organization whose mission is to advance California Latinas' reproductive health and rights within a social justice and human rights framework. CLRJ strives to ensure that policy developments reflect Latinas' priority needs, as well as those of their families and their communities."

CHANGE: Center for Health and Gender Equity
“The Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE) is a U.S.-based non-governmental organization whose mission is to ensure that U.S. international policies and programs promote women's and girls' sexual and reproductive health within a human rights framework."

END VIOLENCE against Women: Information and Resources
END VIOLENCE against Women was developed by the INFO Project to collect and share in one central location information on the latest research, tools, project reports, and communication materials produced in the worldwide struggle to end violence against women. EndVAW aims to especially cover the intersection of violence against women and subsequent effects of this violence on women's reproductive health. It is designed for researchers, health communication specialists, policy makers, and others.

Know More Say More
kNOw MORE is a national pubic awareness campaign of the Futures Without Violence that is working to educate youth about the reproductive health consequences of violence and sexual coercion. Its aim is to open a dialogue and find a common language on the issue. kNOw MORE offers a variety of resources including screening tools for healthcare providers.

National Latina Institue for Reproductive Health
"The mission of NLIRH is to ensure the fundamental human right to reproductive health and justice for Latinas, their families and their communities through public education, community mobilization and policy advocacy."

Pro-Choice Public Education Project
"Pep is a national reproductive justice organization that works to engage and inform organizations, young women, transgender and gender non-conforming young people, ages 16-25, especially those whose voices are not heard in spaces where sexual and reproductive health and rights are addressed."

Mapping Our Rights
"The objective of this map is to document the vast differences in laws and policies on a state level and show the linkages between sexual and reproductive rights. The immediate goals are to: monitor state laws and policies; document and analyze state-level restrictions on sexual and reproductive laws and policies; and encourage action against discriminatory legislation."

New Voices Pittsburgh: Women of Color for Reproductive Justice
"New Voices Pittsburgh is a grassroots organization for, led by and about women of color using the reproductive justice framework to organize and build a powerful local movement with women of color and allies. The mission of New Voices Pittsburgh is to connect women of color with the Reproductive Justice Movement, educate communities of color about Human Rights and develop new voices for leadership in Pittsburgh."

Quick Health Data Online by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office on Women's Health
This free health statistics database hosts extensive information on a wide range of concerns; including reproductive health, violence against women, sexual assault, physical violence and prevention. Data is available for all 50 states and U.S. territories and can be shorted by race, ethnicity, gender, and age. The database allows you to create different kinds of data tables, maps, and graphs.

Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice
"The Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice brings the moral power of religious communities to ensure reproductive choice through education and advocacy. The Coalition seeks to give clear voice to the reproductive issues of people of color, those living in poverty, and other underserved populations."

SisterLove, Inc.
"SisterLove is on a mission to eradicate the adverse impact of HIV/AIDS and other reproductive health challenges upon women and their families through education, prevention, support and human rights advocacy in the United States and around the world."

SisterSong Women of Color Reproductive Health Collective
"SisterSong is building a movement for reproductive justice. We mobilize women of color around our lived experiences by: bringing women of color together, encouraging our collective sustainability through mentoring and self-help, providing a framework that resonates with our lived experience, and organizing and mobilizing to affect change."

SPARK Reproductive Justice NOW
"SPARK Reproductive Justice NOW collaborates with individuals, communities and organizations to grow and sustain a powerful reproductive justice movement in Georgia. We do this by: Developing and sharing a radical analysis in order to change culture; Mobilize in response to immediate threats and; Organize for long-term systemic change.»

Third Wave Foundation
"Third Wave is led by a board of young women, men, and transgender activists striving to combat inequalities that we ourselves face as a result of our age, gender, race, sexual orientation, economic status, or level of education. By empowering young women and transgender youth nationwide, Third Wave is building a lasting foundation for young feminists around the country."

Women of Color Policy Network
"The Network conducts original research and collects critical data on women of color that is used to inform public policy outcomes at the local, state, and national levels. The Network also serves as a hub for women of color scholars, leaders, and practitioners."