Home / Special Collections / Resources Addressing the Perpetration of Sexual Violence

Special Collection: Resources Addressing the Perpetration of Sexual Violence

Table of Contents:

   

Introduction | Back to top

We are still learning about those who sexually abuse. We are also continuing to learn about the most effective ways to assess, treat, and manage those who sexually abuse. The vast majority of sex offenders return to our communities. Even though there is no single way to completely eliminate the risk of sexual re-offense, a comprehensive and collaborative approach to sex offender management can go a long way to manage offenders' behaviors and ensure their safe integration within communities. This special collection provides resources that address the topics of sex offender risk, assessment, management, treatment, and supervision. In addition, there is a special focus on the policies that have been created in the past decade to help keep our communities safer.

This collection was developed by the National Sexual Violence Resource Center. All resources are available online in full text. This is not an exhaustive list of all resources available. Additional resources including book titles, articles, reports, and journals can be found by browsing the library at the National Sexual Violence Resource Center or sending information requests to resources@nsvrc.org.

Overview Materials | Back to top

Training tools
  • Changing Offender Behavior to Promote Public Safety [Participant's Manual and Lesson Plans] | HTML HTML (251 p.) ZIP (251 p.)
    by U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections
    Participants will acquire a working knowledge of effective interventions for modifying offender criminal behavior through this 36-hour course.
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  • Sex Offender Management: Training Curricula | HTML HTML
    by Center for Sex Offender Management
    This comprehensive set of curricula that can be used by probation and parole staff, treatment providers, victim advocates, law enforcement personnel, judges, prosecutors, and justice system educators.
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Adult Sex Offenders, Sexually Abusive Youth & Children with Sexual Behavior Problems | Back to top

The resources found below provide an overview of definitions, data, and facts regarding sex offenders. The materials outline characteristics and types of sex offenders including specific populations such as juveniles, adults, and females.

Adult Male Sex Offenders
  • Criminal Offenders Statistics | HTML HTML (2 p.)
    by Bureau of Justice Statistics (2001)
    Includes facts and figures released by the bureau of Justice Statistics on recidivism, sex offenders, women offenders as well as other statistics on other topics.
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  • Facts about Adult Sex Offenders | HTML HTML (6 p.)
    by The Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (2001)
    This fact sheet answers some of the following questions: Can sex offenders be cured? Does sex offender treatment really work?
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  • Facts about Sex Offenders | HTML HTML (4 p.)
    by Megan's Law, California Dept of Justice (2001)
    This short true or false quiz tests how much we know and how much of our knowledge has been based on the myths that we hear about sexual assault and sex offenders.
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  • Myths and Facts About Sex Offenders | PDF PDF (8 p.) HTML HTML (8 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (August 2000)
    This document contains important information on common assumptions, both true and false, about sex offenders and their victims.
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  • Reasons Why We Can’t Profile Sex Offenders | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by L.C. Miccio-Fonseca, California Coalition on Sexual Offending
    The author of this article discusses how researchers have developed "typologies" of sex offenders and have focused on describing characteristics of adult and adolescent sex offender, both males and females.
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Sexually Abusive Youth
  • Juveniles Who Commit Sex Offenses Against Minors | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by David Finkelhor, Richard Ormrod, and Mark Chaffin, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (December 2009)
    This Bulletin draws on data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s National Incident-Based Reporting System to provide population-based epidemiological information on juvenile sex offending.
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  • Adolescent Sex Offenders: Common Misconceptions vs. Current Evidence | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by Barbara L. Bonner, PhD; Mark Chaffin, PhD; & Keri Pierce, MSW, National Center on Sexual Behavior of Youth (July 2003)
    This fact sheet offers information on myths and facts about adolescent sex offenders.
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  • Juvenile Sexual Aggression Fact Sheet | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence (2008)
    It is estimated that there are somewhere between 250,000 and 300,000 cases of child sexual abuse each year and over one third of those cases are committed by someone under the age of 18.
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  • Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: A Review of the Professional Literature | PDF PDF (86 p.)
    by Sue Righthand and Carlann Welch, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (March 2001)
    This report clearly supports the importance of interventions that are tailored to the individual juvenile.
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  • OJJDP Fact Sheet: Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program | PDF HTML (2 p.)
    by Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (April 1999)
    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the Denver, Pittsburgh, and Rochester Youth Development Studies used by the Causes and Correlates Delinquency Project to improve the understanding of serious delinquency
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  • OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Co-Occurence of Delinquency and Other Problem Behaviors | PDF PDF (7 p.)
    by Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (November 2000)
    This bulletin is part of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Youth Development Series, which presents findings from the Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency.
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  • OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Family Disruption and Delinquency | PDF PDF (5 p.)
    by Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (September 1999)
    This bulletin presents findings from the Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency.
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  • OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin: In the Wake of Childhood Maltreatment | PDF PDF (15 p.)
    by Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (October 1998)
    This bulletin discusses findings that indicate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and subsequent delinquency, including sexual violence.
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  • What Research Shows About Adolescent Sex Offenders | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by Mark Chaffin, PhD; Barbara L. Bonner, PhD; Keri Pierce, MPH,MSW, National Center on Sexual Behavior of Youth (July 2003)
    This fact sheet contains information about the available research on adolescent sex offenders and also addresses issues related to community safety and supervision.
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  • Youth who commit sex offenses: Facts and Fiction | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by Justice Policy Institute (February 2009)
    This fact sheet debunks some of the most common misperceptions about young people convicted of sex offenses.
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Children with Sexual Behavior Problems
  • Children with Sexual Behavior Problems: Common Misconceptions vs. Current Findings | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by Jane F. Silovsky, PhD & Barbara L. Bonner, PhD, National Center on Sexual Behavior of Youth (July 2003)
    This fact sheet provides information about children who demonstrate developmentally inappropriate or aggressive sexual behavior. It addresses some common myths about this population and provides findings from research on the issue.
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  • Fact Sheet about Children with Sexual Behavior Problems | HTML HTML (2 p.)
    by Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (2001)
    Children under the age of 12 with sexual behavior problems have been given increasing attention in professional literature.
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  • Sexual Development and Sexual Behavior Problems in Children Ages 2-12 | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by National Center on Sexual Behavior of Youth (NCSBY ) (January 2004)
    This fact sheet provides basic information about sexual development and problematic sexual behavior in children ages 2-12.
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Female offenders
  • Female Sex Offenders | PDF PDF (16 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (March 2007)
    This policy and practice brief synthesizes the research and other professional literature about women and adolescent girls who commit sex offenses.
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  • Female Sex Offenders | HTML HTML (6 p.)
    by Child Abuse Effects
    This webpage gives a brief overview of why abusive behavior by female offenders goes unreported.
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  • Study: Most female child molesters were victims of sexual abuse | HTML HTML (1 p.)
    by Sam Fahmy, Susan Strickland, University of Georgia (May 2008)
    This brief report on Strickland’s study, the largest of its kind, surveyed 130 incarcerated females — 60 of which were sex offenders - and examined factors such as childhood trauma, substance abuse, emotional neediness and personality disorders.
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  • What Research Shows about Female Adolescent Sex Offenders | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by Susan Schmidt, PhD & Keri Pierce, MSW, National Center on Sexual Behavior of Youth (January 2004)
    This fact sheet offers information about female adolescent sex offenders based on the limited research that is available. The information provided includes characteristics of this population as well as assessment and treatment issues.
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Special Issues in the Assessment, Treatment and Management of Sexually Abusive Behaviors | Back to top

Recidivism of Sex Offenders
This section offers information regarding recidivism; data on people who victimize multiple populations. The resources examine issues regarding re-offending and provide data on different populations such as first time offenders, incest offenders, etc. This section also provides risk assessment tools.
  • The Effects of Prison Sentences and Intermediate Sanctions on Recidivism: General Effects and Individual Differences | PDF PDF (47 p.)
    by Paula Smith, Claire Goggin, & Paul Gendreau, Solicitor General’s Office of Canada (2002)
    This examination of nearly half a million criminal offenders concludes that prisons and intermediate sanctions should not be used on their own with the expectation that they will reduce criminal behavior.
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  • Recidivism of Sex Offenders | PDF PDF (20 p.) HTML HTML (20 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (May 2001)
    Summarizes current research on the reoffense rates of sex offenders and explores issues in defining recidivism. Focuses primarily on adult male offenders, describing factors and conditions that appear to be associated with reduced sexual offending.
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  • A Review of the Recidivism Rates of Adult Female Sexual Offenders | PDF PDF (22 p.)
    by Correctional Service of Canada (2005)
    The purpose of this review was to provide information on the prevalence of female sexual offending, and to establish an understanding of the re-offending rates of these women.
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  • Sex Offender Recidivism: A Simple Question | PDF PDF (29 p.)
    by Andrew J. R. Harris and R. Karl Hanson, Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada (2004)
    This study examines sexual recidivism, as expressed by new charges or convictions for sexual offenses, using the data from 10 follow-up studies of adult male sexual offenders.
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  • Sex Offender Recidivism in Minnesota | PDF PDF (24 p.)
    by Minnesota Department of Correction (April 2007)
    In examining recidivism among 3,166 sex offenders released from a Minnesota Correctional Facility (MCF) between 1990 and 2002, this report addresses the following question: What are the factors associated with sex offender recidivism?
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  • Sex Offender Recidivism in Missouri and Community Correction Options | PDF PDF (16 p.)
    by Institute of Public Policy, University of Missouri – Columbia (June 2006)
    The vast majority of sex offenders will be returned to the community following incarceration; therefore, it is important to understand the recidivism patterns of this group and the community corrections options that are successful.
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Assessment
  • The Accuracy of Recidivism Risk Assessments for Sexual Offenders: A Meta-Analysis | PDF PDF (46 p.)
    by R. Karl Hanson and Kelly E. Morton-Bourgon, California Coalition on Sexual Offending (2007)
    This paper reviews the accuracy of different approaches to risk assessment for sexual offender recidivism. The risk assessments were classified according to the source of the items (empirical or conceptual).
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  • Assessing the Risk of Juvenile Sex Offenders Using the Intensive Parole Sex Offender Domain | PDF PDF (16 p.)
    by Robert Barnoski, Washington State Institute for Public Policy (May 2008)
    This report summarizes the findings of whether a valid risk assessment for sexual reoffending could be developed using data from the sex offender domain of the Intensive Parole Supervision Assessment (IPSA).
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  • Assessing the Risk of Sexual Offenders on Community Supervision: The Dynamic Supervision Project | PDF PDF (61 p.)
    by R. Karl Hanson, Andrew J.R. Harris, Terri-Lynne Scott and Leslie Helmus, California Coalition on Sexual Offending (2007)
    This study analyzed 997 sexual offenders in sixteen Canadian jurisdictions and 2 American states (Iowa and Alaska) for risk assessment methodologies.
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  • The Importance of Assessment in Sex Offender Management: An Overview of Key Principles and Practices | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (2007)
    This policy and practice brief provides an overview of underlying principles and promising practices relative to assessments and emphasizes the integral role that assessments play in ensuring informed and effective management of this population.
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  • Offender Risk Assessment | PDF PDF (20 p.)
    by John Howard Society of Alberta (2000)
    While there are many different methods of risk assessment, they tend to fall into two broad categories: clinical and actuarial. This article describes these methods, accompanied by a discussion of the accuracy of each.
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  • Research Bulletin: Sex Offender Populations, Recidivism and Actuarial Assessment | PDF PDF (14 p.)
    by New York State Division of Probation and Correctional Alternatives (May 2007)
    The purpose of this bulletin is to summarize the research on sex offender recidivism rates, and to provide an overview of the availability, validity and usefulness of actuarial risk assessment instruments specific to sex offenders.
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  • Risk Assessment | PDF PDF (14 p.)
    by R. Karl Hanson, Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (January 2000)
    This resource covers the important issues and best current measures of potential future risk, integrating an empirical approach with the practical demands of clinical practice.
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  • Risk Assessment Instruments to Predict Recidivism of Sex Offenders: Practices in Washington State | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by Washington State Institute for Public Policy (2008)
    This paper reviews policies and practices regarding assessment of sex offenders for risk of re-offense among public agencies and private treatment providers in Washington State.
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Treatment
  • Glossary of Terms used in the Management and Treatment of Sexual Offenders | PDF PDF (38 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (1999)
    The purpose of this document is to provide, in a single source, a comprehensive listing of terms with definitions that reflect conventionally accepted language in the domain of sex offender management.
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  • Juvenile Sex Offense Specific Treatment Needs & Progress Scale | PDF PDF (9 p.)
    by Sue Righthand, Center for Sex Offender Management (2005)
    This Sex Offense-Specific Progress Scale is designed to facilitate the clinical assessment of dynamic risk factors that have been identified in the empirical and clinical literature.
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  • Offender Programs Evaluation | PDF PDF (171 p.)
    by Kansas Department of Corrections (January 2007)
    The programs described in this report have different curricula, different program durations, different objectives, different offender target groups, and different contractors.
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  • An Overview of Sex Offender Management | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (2002)
    This brochure describes briefly the characteristics of adult and juvenile sex offenders and their offenses, the impact of sexual assault on victims, and the key components to the effective management of sex offenders under community supervision.
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  • Research Shows that the Right Treatment for Adolescents Can Reduce Recidivism | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by NEARI Press (2008)
    This brief article reviews an important examination into treatment of adolescents who have sexually abused.
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  • Review of Sex Offender Treatment Programmes | PDF PDF (30 p.)
    by Derek Perkins, Sean Hammond, Dawn Coles, and Darren Bishopp, Department of Psychology, Broadmoor Hospital
    The available research is varied in focus, methodology and quality, nevertheless there appears to be grounds for cautious optimism regarding the efficacy of treatment programs aimed at sex offenders.
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  • Sex Offender Treatment Programs | PDF PDF (23 p.)
    by John Howard Society of Alberta (2002)
    This paper is intended to dispel the myth of the untreatable sex offender, and provide conclusive evidence that sex offender treatment is not only possible but to a large extent is successful in reducing the recidivism of sex offenders.
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  • To Treat or Not to Treat... What are the Questions? Considering the Effectiveness of Sexual Offender Treatment | PDF PDF (9 p.) by The Forum, Newsletter of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (Summer 2009) This article explores controversies regarding sexual offender treatment effectiveness.
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  • Understanding Treatment for Adults and Juveniles Who Have Committed Sex Offenses | PDF PDF (16 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (November 2006)
    The purpose of this brief is to provide a broad overview of current research, professional literature, and practice trends relative to treatment for sexually abusive individuals.
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Sex Offender Management Strategies
  • The Collaborative Approach to Sex Offender Management | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (2000)
    This brief explores why collaboration is essential to the effective management of sex offenders, and discusses the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach.
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  • The Comprehensive Approach to Sex Offender Management | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (November 2008)
    This document is a framework that has been developed to define and encourage a strategic and collaborative response to managing sex offenders and reducing recidivism.
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  • Comprehensive Assessment Protocol: A System wide Review of Adult and Juvenile Sex Offender Management Strategies (CAP)| HTML HTML
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (2008)
    The CAP is a tool that, when used as designed, will guide its users through a deliberate and highly collaborative information-gathering and analysis process.
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  • Enhancing the Management of Adult and Juvenile Sex Offenders: A Handbook for Policymakers and Practitioners | PDF PDF (102 p.)
    Center for Sex Offender Management (2007)
    This handbook is designed to assist policymakers and practitioners in the process of assessing, and strengthening, their adult and juvenile sex offender management approaches.
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  • Key Roles of Law Enforcement in Sex Offender Management | PDF PDF (8 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (2008)
    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the roles and leadership opportunities for law enforcement in increasing public safety and reducing the likelihood of further sexual victimization.
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  • Managing Sex Offenders in the Community: A National Overview | PDF PDF (61 p.)
    by Lane Council of Governments (2003)
    National review of the literature on sex offender management for Adult and Juvenile sex offenders. Some of the topics under adult sex offender management includes sex offender management in the US, emerging trends, and physiological and monitoring tools.
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  • An Overview of Sex Offender Management | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (2002)
    This brochure describes briefly the characteristics of adult and juvenile sex offenders and their offenses, the impact of sexual assault on victims, and the key components to the effective management of sex offenders under community supervision.
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  • Public Opinion and the Criminal Justice System: Building Support for Sex Offender Management Programs | PDF PDF (8 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (2000)
    This brief draws on the experiences of jurisdictions that have incorporated public opinion into their response to sex offenders, as well as lessons learned from jurisdictions that have utilized public opinion to influence other criminal justice practices.
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Community Approaches
  • Community-Based Standards for Addressing Youth Who Have Caused Sexual Harm | PDF PDF (33 p.)
    by Providence Service Corporation (2007)
    The purpose of this document is to provide a foundation for a comprehensive, community-based response to sexual harm by youth.
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Role for Victim Advocates
  • Engaging Advocates and Other Victim Service Providers in the Community Management of Sex Offenders | PDF PDF (16 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (2000)
    The purpose of this brief is to provide information, ideas, and resources that will encourage agencies managing sex offenders in the community to consider the benefits and feasibility of involving victim advocates and other victim service providers.
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  • Knowledge leads to empowerment. Victim Advocates: Your Guide to Sex Offender Containment Teams | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape (2008)
    This booklet introduces a new approach to helping victims of sexual violence. This approach, called the victim-centered “Sex Offender Containment Model”, may be a significant change in the way many do advocacy work.
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  • The Victim's Role in Offender Reentry: A Community Response Manual | PDF PDF (104 p.)
    by Anne K. Seymour (American Probation and Parole Association)
    Offers practical suggestions regarding how reentry partners can become involved in assisting victims whose offenders are released, or preparing to be released, to the community.
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Public Policy on Sex Offenders | Back to top

  • Legislative Trends in Sex Offender Management | PDF PDF (20 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (2008)
    This resource document provides lawmakers and other interested parties, such as agency directors, court officials, and criminal justice practitioners with an overview of legislative trends in sex offender management.
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  • Managing Sex Offenders in the Community: A Handbook to Guide Policymakers and Practitioners through a Planning and Implementation Process | PDF PDF (102 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (April 2002)
    This handbook is designed to assist policymakers and practitioners in the process of assessing, and strengthening, their adult and juvenile sex offender management approaches.
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  • Myths and Facts about Sexual Offenders: Implications for Treatment and Public Policy | HTML HTML (25 p.)
    by Timothy Fortney, Jill Levenson, Yolanda Brannon & Juanita N. Baker, Sexual Offender Treatment (2007)
    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent perceptions about sexual offenders are based on empirical evidence or misconceptions.
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  • No Easy Answers: Sex Offender Laws in the US | PDF PDF (146 p.)
    by Human Rights Watch (September 2007)
    This report takes an in-depth look into the current sex offender laws in the US and offers a critique of such laws as well as recommendations and model programs.
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  • Public Perceptions about Sex Offenders and Community Protection Policies, Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy | PDF PDF (25 p.)
    by Jill S. Levenson, Yolanda N. Brannon, Timothy Fortney, and Juanita Baker, The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (2007)
    Sex offenders and sex crimes provoke a great deal of anxiety in our society, and over the past decade, lawmakers have passed a variety of social policies designed to protect the public from sexual victimization.
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  • Sex Offenses: Facts, Fictions and Policy Implications | HTML HTML (9 p.) by Criminal Justice Policy Coalition (December 2006) This issue takes a broader look at the challenges of sex offending.
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  • Twenty Strategies for Advancing Sex Offender Management in Your Jurisdiction | PDF PDF (54 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (December 2008)
    This document was developed for policymakers interested in advancing adult and juvenile sex offender management in their jurisdictions.
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Community Notification and Registration (Megan's Law)
  • Sex Offender Registration and Notification: Limited Effects in New Jersey | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by Kristen M. Zgoba, Ph.D., and Karen Bachar, National Institute of Justice (April 2009)
    The report summarizes the findings of an independent scientific assessment of the effects of Megan’s Law in New Jersey.
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  • Community Notification and Education | PDF PDF (20 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (2001)
    This policy and practice brief examines the differences in state laws regarding community notification and explores some innovative approaches to notification and education in place across the United States.
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  • Community Notification as Viewed by Washington's Citizens: A 10-Year Follow-up | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by Washington State Institute for Public Policy (2008)
    The 1990 Legislature directed the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (Institute) to evaluate the effectiveness of the Community Protection Act.
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  • Do Sex Offender Registration and Notification Laws Affect Criminal Behavior? | PDF PDF (56 p.)
    by J.J. Prescott and Jonah E. Rockof, University of Michigan Law School (2008)
    This article describes how sex offender registration and notification affect the frequency and incidence of offenses and checks for change in police response to reported crimes.
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  • Does Sex Offender Registration and Notification Reduce Crime? A Systematic Review of the Research Literature | PDF PDF (16 p.)
    by Elizabeth Drake and Steve Aos, Washington State Institute for Public Policy (June 2009)
    The Washington State Institute for Public Policy was asked by the Sex Offender Policy Board to evaluate the effectiveness of sex offender registration and community notification laws on reducing crime.
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  • Frequently Asked Questions: The Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) Proposed Guidelines | PDF PDF (17 p.)
    by U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs (2007)
    This fact sheet addresses frequently asked questions about the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) pertaining to the law's provisions, implementation, and relevance to sex offender registries.
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  • Megan's Law: Assessing the Practical and Monetary Efficacy | PDF PDF (46 p.)
    by Kristen Zgoba, Philip Witt, Melissa Dalessandro and Bonita Veysey, National Institute of Justice (December 2008)
    This federally-funded study investigated the overall effect of Megan’s Law on sexual offending over time, specific deterrence, and costs of the law.
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  • Megan's Law and its Impact on Community Re-Entry for Sex Offenders | PDF PDF (25 p.)
    by Levenson, Jill S., David A. D'Amora, and Andrea L. Hern, Behavioral Sciences and the Law (2007)
    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of community notification on the lives of registered sex offenders.
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  • The National Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification (Final Guidelines) | PDF PDF (101 p.)
    by U.S. Department of Justice (June 2008)
    The Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (“SORNA” or “the Act”) provides a new comprehensive set of minimum standards for sex offender registration and notification in the United States.
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  • The New Battleground for Public Law 280 Jurisdiction: Sex Offender Registration in Indian Country | PDF PDF (34 p.)
    by Timothy J. Droske, Northwestern University Law Review (2007)
    This article explores how the state of Minnesota has handled jurisdictional issues with regard to Native American sexual offenders residing on tribal lands.
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  • Sex Offender Community Notification: Assessing the Impact in Wisconsin | PDF PDF (11 p.)
    by Zevitz, Richard and Mary Ann Farkas, The National Institute of Justice (2000)
    Zevits and Farkas examine the effects of Wisconsin’s community notification statute authorizing law enforcement to notify residents of sex offenders in communities.
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  • Sex Offender Registration: Policy Overview and Comprehensive Practices | PDF PDF (9 p.) by
    Center for Sex Offender Management (1999)
    This brief is intended to inform citizens, state and local leaders, and criminal justice professionals about the policy issues related to sex offender registration.
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  • Sex Offender Sentencing in Washington State: Has Community Notification Reduced Recidivism? | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by Washington State Institute for Public Policy (2005)
    This report examines the relationship between recidivism and Washington’s passage of sex offender registration and community notification statutes.
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  • Washington State's Community Notification Law: 15 Years of Change | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by Washington State Institute for Public Policy (2006)
    This document discusses modifications and responses to the law in the 15 years following its adoption.
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Community Reentry and Reintegration
  • Going Home: The Washington State Reentry Project Interim Report: 18-Month Recidivism Rates for Program Participants | PDF PDF (4 p.)
    by Elizabeth Drake, Washington State Institute for Public Policy (June 2009)
    The program was designed to transition younger, high-risk, violent offenders into the community. This interim report outlines the research design and provides 18-month recidivism rates for program participants.
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  • Managing the Challenges of Sex Offender Reentry | PDF PDF (20 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (2007)
    This policy and practice brief is designed to inform collaborative work to support the successful transition of sex offenders from prison to the community while ensuring victim and community safety.
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  • The Three 'R's of Reentry: Reparative Justice. Relationships. Responsibility | PDF PDF (22 p.)
    by American Probation and Parole Association (December 2006)
    This white paper is intended to create a dialogue about offender reentry from a victim, family, and harm centered perspective.
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  • Time to Work: Managing the Employment of Sex Offenders Under Community Supervision | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (2002)
    This paper discusses critical issues in the management of sex offender employment.
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  • Treatment and Reentry Practices for Sex Offenders: An Overview of States | PDF PDF (165 p.)
    by Vera Institute of Justice (2008)
    This report attempts to address these issues by providing an overview and analysis of existing treatment and reentry practices for sex offenders who are involved with the criminal justice system.
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Adam Walsh Act
  • Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act: A Sketch | PDF PDF (6 p.)
    by Charles Doyle, Congressional Research Service (2007)
    This resource provides a brief summary of the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act, P.L. 109-248 (H.R. 4472) which reformulates the federal standards for sex offender registration in state, territorial and tribal sexual offender registries.
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  • Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 | PDF PDF (71 p.)
    by The National Alliance to End Sexual Violence (2007)
    The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 was enacted on July 27, 2006. In addition to establishing a national sex offender registry law, the Act made significant changes to sexual abuse, exploitation, and transportation crimes.
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  • Juvenile Offenders Required to Register Under SORNA: A Fact Sheet | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs
    This fact sheet provides information about sex offender registration requirements to juvenile offenders who are adjudicated delinquent of a sex offense.
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  • Legislative Analysis: The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 | PDF PDF (7 p.)
    by The National Alliance to End Sexual Violence (2006)
    This analysis of the Act that may help with both the implementation of this legislation at the state level as well as state legislation related to sex offenders.
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Community Supervision and GPS
  • Community Re-entry Recast as Primary Prevention | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by Sex Offender Law Report (August/September 2006)
    In the absence of an informed public debate on the re-entry of those who have been convicted of sex crimes, fear-based laws are being enacted across the country.
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  • Community Supervision of the Sex Offender: An Overview of Current and Promising Practices | PDF PDF (16 p.)
    by Center for Sex Offender Management (2000)
    The purpose of this brief is to provide an overview and discussion of emerging practices and lessons in communities across the country in the management of sex offenders under community supervision.
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  • Offender Supervision with Electronic Technology | PDF PDF (140 p.)
    by Ann h. Crowe, Linda Sydney, Pat Bancroft, and Beverly Lawrence, American Probation and Parole Association (2002)
    This document is intended for staff education on offender supervision.
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  • Risk Assessment and Sex Offender Community Supervision: A Context-Specific Framework | HTML HTML (11 p.)
    by Andrew J. Harris, Federal Probation: A Journal of Correctional Philosophy and Practice (2006)
    This article reviews the current state of sex offender risk assessment and presents a framework for sex offender risk assessment and community supervision practice.
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Residency Restrictions
  • Collateral Consequences of Sex Offender Residence Restrictions | PDF PDF (27 p.)
    by Jill S. Levenson, National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers (NACDL)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the unintended consequences of policies that restrict where sex offenders can live.
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  • The Impact of Residency Restrictions on Sex Offenders and Correctional Management Practices: A Literature Review | PDF PDF (57 p.)
    by Nieto, Marcus, and David Jung, California Research Bureau, California State Library (2006)
    This report examines local ordinances and state statutes across the country that restrict where a sex offender may legally live, and the constitutional implications of such restrictions.
    + View Summary
  • Level Three Sex Offenders Residential Placement Issues: 2003 Report to the Legislature | PDF PDF (27 p.)
    by Minnesota Department of Corrections (2003)
    This report to the Minnesota Legislature discusses community placement of high-risk sex offenders.
    + View Summary
  • Report on Safety Issues Raised by Living Arrangements for and Location of Sex Offenders in the Community as Prepared for the Colorado State Judiciary Committees, Senate and House of Representatives | PDF PDF (59 p.)
    by Colorado Department of Public Safety Sex Offender Management Board (2004)
    This report examines safety issues raised by sex offenders’ community living arrangements, finding that family and community support were important factors contributing to lowered recidivism.
    + View Summary
  • Residential Proximity & Sex Offense Recidivism in Minnesota | PDF PDF (30 p.)
    by Annie Lyles, Larry Cohen, Margot Brown, Minnesota Department of Corrections (2007)
    This report contains an analysis of sexual re-offense patterns of 224 recidivists initially released from prison between 1990 and 2002.
    + View Summary
  • Sex Offender Residence Restrictions: A Report to the Florida Legislature | PDF PDF (14 p.)
    by Jill S. Levenson, National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers (NACDL) (2005)
    This report argues for the use of risk assessment, treatment programs, and aggressive monitoring as tools for sex offender management.
    + View Summary
  • Sex Offender Residency Restrictions: How Mapping Can Inform Policy | PDF PDF (2 p.)
    by National Institute of Justice (2008)
    This paper explains how a geographic-information-systems (GIS) analysis can reveal the sex offender housing problems that may arise in a given community if an exclusion-zone law were to be enacted.
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  • The Unconstitutionality and Inefficacy of Sex Offender Residency Laws | PDF PDF (36 p.)
    by Sarah E. Agudo, Northwestern University Law Review (2008)
    The goal of this three part article is to “promote a cogent dialogue regarding the upper bounds of their effectiveness and constitutionality in order to provide a framework for future legislation."
    + View Summary
Civil Commitment
  • The Constitutionality of Civil Commitment and the Requirement of Adequate Treatment | PDF PDF (47 p.)
    by Douglas G. Smith, Boston College Law Review (2008)
    This article addresses the constitutional concerns and costs and benefits associated with civil commitment for sexually violent predators.
    + View Summary
  • Involuntary Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators: Comparing State Laws | PDF PDF (8 p.)
    by Washington State Institute for Public Policy (March 2005)
    Seventeen states have laws that authorize confinement of sex offenders identified as “sexually violent predators.”
    + View Summary
Internet Crimes
  • Internet Pornography and Child Exploitation | PDF PDF (54 p.)
    by United States Department of Justice (November 2006)
    This U.S. Attorney's Bulletin contains articles dealing with establishing federal jurisdiction, evidence gathering, child victim issues, and other subjects related to internet pornography and child sexual exploitation.
    + View Summary

Prevention Focused on Perpetration Issues | Back to top

* See VAWnet's Special Collection: Working with Children Towards a Healthy & Non-Violent Future, focusing on theories and strategies for raising respectful, non-violent people.

  • Juvenile Sex Offenders: Managing and Preventing Future Offenses | PDF PDF (9 p.)
    by International Association of Chiefs of Police (March 2009)
    This brief describes trends observed in the field and the strategies employed by two law enforcement agencies to manage juvenile sex offenders in their communities..
    + View Summary
  • Community Re-entry Recast as Primary Prevention | PDF PDF (3 p.)
    by Sex Offender Law Report (August/September 2006)
    In the absence of an informed public debate on the re-entry of those who have been convicted of sex crimes, fear-based laws are being enacted across the country..
    + View Summary
  • Prevent Child Sexual Abuse: Facts about sexual abuse and how to prevent it | PDF PDF (12 p.)
    by Stop It Now! (2008)
    This guidebook contains information on how adults can step forward and help protect children..
    + View Summary
  • Rape Prevention and Risk Reduction: Review of the Research Literature for Practitioners | PDF PDF (21 p.) HTML HTML
    by Kimberly A. Lonsway with contributions from Dorothy Edwards, VAWnet: The National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women (January 2009)
    This Applied Research paper examines both single- and mixed-gender rape prevention and risk reduction programs, and provides suggestions for practitioners to design, implement, and evaluate programs.
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  • Report Describing Projects Designed to Prevent First Time Male Perpetration of Sexual Violence (Updated) | PDF PDF (101 p.)
    by RTI International (2008)
    This report offers a catalogue of programs targeting prevention of first-time male perpetration of sexual violence.
    + View Summary
  • Reshape Issue 16: Sex Offender Management | PDF PDF (21 p.)
    by Sexual Assault Coalition Resource Sharing Project (Fall 2005)
    The Fall 2005 newsletter of the Sexual Assault Coalition Resource Sharing Project deals with the topic of sex offender management and provides important information to coalitions on how to respond to this issue.
    + View Summary
  • Using Rapist Risk Factors to Set an Agenda for Rape Prevention | PDF PDF (16 p.) HTML HTML
    by Raymond A. Knight and Judith Sims-Knight with contributions from Suzanne Brown-McBride, VAWnet: The National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women (September 2009)
    This Applied Research paper reviews the empirical research on the behaviors, traits, developmental experiences, and biological antecedents that have been found to be associated with an increased probability that a male will become sexually aggressive.
    + View Summary

Additional Resources | Back to top

This section is a compilation of additional resources regarding sex offender management.

Websites

Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers
ATSA is an international organization focused specifically on the prevention of sexual abuse through effective management of sex offenders.

The American Probation and Parole Association
The American Probation and Parole Association is an international association composed of members from the United States, Canada and other countries actively involved with probation, parole and community-based corrections, in both adult and juvenile sectors. All levels of government including local, state/provincial, legislative, executive, judicial, and federal agencies are counted among its constituents. By taking the initiative, APPA has grown to become the voice for thousands of probation and parole practitioners including line staff, supervisors and administrators. Educators, volunteers and concerned citizens with an interest in criminal and juvenile justice are also among APPA's members. APPA will continue to effectively provide services to its constituents. The association represents a strong, unified voice for the field of community corrections.

California Coalition of Sexual Offending
The Coalition was founded in 1986 in response to California's growing need for a formally structured resource for professionals working with persons involved in the commission of rape, child sexual abuse, incest, and other forms of sexual assault. Coalition members represent law enforcement, criminal justice, mental health, probation, parole, and other community services dedicated to addressing complex issues related to sex crimes and sexual deviance.

Center for Sex Offender Management
The Center for Sex Offender Management's (CSOM) goal is to enhance public safety by preventing further victimization through improving the management of adult and juvenile sex offenders who are in the community.

Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) National/State Sex Offender Registry Website
The site allows you to find information about your state's sex offender registry requirements.

Sex Offender Registration Laws
Provides a drop down box menu for the laws from each state on sex offender registration. Those marked with an asterisk (*) have separate laws for juveniles.

Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking (SMART) Office
The SMART Office was authorized in the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006, which was signed into law on July 27, 2006. The responsibilities of the SMART Office include providing jurisdictions with guidance regarding the implementation of the Adam Walsh Act, and providing technical assistance to the states, territories, Indian tribes, local governments, and to public and private organizations. The SMART Office also tracks important legislative and legal developments related to sex offenders and administers grant programs related to the registration, notification, tracking, and monitoring of sex offenders.

Dru Sjodin National Sex Offender Public Website
The Dru Sjodin National Sex Offender Public Website (NSOPW), coordinated by the U.S. Department of Justice, is a cooperative effort between Jurisdictions hosting public sex offender registries (“Jurisdictions”) and the federal government. These Jurisdictions include the 50 states, Puerto Rico, Guam, the District of Columbia, and participating tribes. This Website is a search tool allowing a user to submit a single national query to obtain information about sex offenders through a number of search options.

Civic Research Institute ($)
Civic Research Institute is an independent publisher of reference and practice materials for professionals in the social sciences and law. CRI's publications provide practical guidance, best practices and cutting-edge thinking, reporting, analysis and commentary, in all formats, including newsletters and journals, supplemented books and monographs, and loose-leaf services. Editors, authors and contributors are leading authorities and practitioners in their fields.

Washington State Institute for Public Policy
The public policy research agency for the Washington state legislature. The website has a number of research papers on sex offender policy.

Books
This list contains titles and ordering information for professional books on sex offender management.

Cultural Diversity in Sexual Abuser Treatment: Issues and Approaches
Alvin D. Lewis, ed.
Safer Society Press, 1999
232 pages
http://www.safersociety.org/allbks/wp066.php

Female Sexual Abusers: Three Views
Patricia A. Davin, Julia C.R. Hislop, and Teresa Dunbar
Safer Society Press, 1999
393 pages
http://www.safersociety.org/allbks/wp067.php  

Forensic Management of Sexual Offenders
Robert Alan Prentky and Ann Wolbert Burgess
Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, 2000
340 pages
http://www.springer.com/psychology/law+%26+psychology/book/978-0-306-46278-8  

Handbook for Sexual Abuser Assessment and Treatment
Mark S. Carich and Steven E. Mussack, eds.
Safer Society Press, 2001
272 pages
http://www.safersociety.org/allbks/wp083.php  

Identifying and Treating Sex Offenders: Current Approaches, Research, and Techniques
Robert Geffner, Kristina Crumpton Franey, Tero Geffner Arnold, and Robert Falconer, eds.
Routledge, 2004
314 pages
(Published simultaneously as vol. 12, no. 3 and 4 of the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse)
http://www.routledge.com/books/Identifying-and-Treating-Sex-Offenders-isbn9780789025074  

Assessing Youth Who Have Sexually Abused: A Primer
By David S. Prescott
NEARI Press, 2006
98 pages
http://www.neari.com/book.php?id=35

The Juvenile Sex Offender (Second Edition)
Howard E. Barbaree and William L. Marshall, eds.
The Guilford Press, 2006
396 pages
http://www.guilford.com/cgi-bin/cartscript.cgi?page=pr/barbaree.htm&dir=pp/law&cart_id=776862.12078  

Manual for Structured Group Treatment with Adolescent Sex Offenders (Revised Edition)
JaquelineJacqueline Page and William D. Murphy
Safer Society Press, 2007
272 pages
http://www.safersociety.org/allbks/wp130.php  

Phallometric Testing with Sexual Offenders: Theory, Research, and Practice
William L. Marshall & Yolanda M. Fernandez
Safer Society Press, 2003
90 pages
http://www.safersociety.org/allbks/wp104.php  

Helping Children with Sexual Behavior Problems: A Guidebook for Professionals and Caregivers
By Toni Cavanagh Johnson
44 pages
http://www.neari.com/book.php?id=40

Understanding Children's Sexual Behaviors: What's Natural and Healthy
By Toni Cavanagh Johnson
http://www.neari.com/book.php?id=39

Practical Treatment Strategies for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Working with Forensic Clients with Severe and Sexual Behavior Problems
Gerry D. Blasingame, ed.
Safer Society Press, 2006
176 pages
http://www.safersociety.org/allbks/wp123.php  

Remaking Relapse Prevention with Sex Offenders: A Sourcebook
D. Richard Laws, Stephen M. Hudson, and Tony ward, eds.
Sage Publications, 2000
576 pages
http://www.sagepub.com/booksProdDesc.nav?prodId=Book10661  

Sexual Deviance, second edition: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment
D. Richard Laws and William O'Donohue, eds.
Guilford Press, 2008
642 pages

Theories of Sexual Offending
Tony Ward, Devon Polaschek, and Anthony Beech
Wiley Series in Forensic Psychology, 2006
373 pages

Building Motivation to Change in Sexual Offenders
David Prescott, Editor and Contributor
Safer Society Press, 2009
243 pages

Current Perspectives: Working with Sexually Aggressive Youth and Youth with Sexual Behavior Problems
Robert E. Longo and David S. Prescott, Eds.
NEARI Press, 2006
722 pages
http://www.neari.com/book.php?id=25

The Sex Offender
Volume I: Corrections, Treatment and Legal Practice
Volume II: New Insights, Treatment Innovations and Legal Developments
Volume III: Theoretical Advances, Treating Special Populations and Legal Developments
Volume IV: Current Treatment Modalities and Systems Issues
Volume V: Issues in Assessment, Treatment and Supervision of Adult and Juvenile Offenders
Volume VI: Offender Evaluation and Program Strategies
Barbara K. Schwartz, ed.
Civic Research Institute, 1995-2008
http://www.civicresearchinstitute.com/tso.html  

Sex Offender Registration and Community Notification: A "Megan's Law" Sourcebook (Second Edition)
Karen J. Terry and John S. Furlong
Civil Research Institute, 2008
1,912 pages
http://www.civicresearchinstitute.com/meg.html  

Sexual Offender Treatment: Biopsychosocial Perspectives
Eli Coleman and Michael Miner, eds.
Routledge, 2000
128 pages
http://www.routledgelaw.com/books/Sexual-Offender-Treatment-isbn9780789010186  

The Sexual Predator
Volume I: Law, Policy, Evaluation and Treatment
Volume II: Legal Issues, Clinical Issues, Special Populations
Volume III: Law and Public Policy, Clinical Practice
Anita Schlank and Fred Cohen, eds.
Civic Research Institute, 1999
http://www.civicresearchinstitute.com/tsp.html  

Supervision of the Sex Offender, second edition
Georgia Cumming and Robert McGrath
Safer Society Press, 2004
218 pages
http://www.safersociety.org/allbks/wp106.php  

Treating Children with Sexually Abusive Behavior Problems: Guidelines for Child and Parent Intervention
Jan Ellen Burton and Lucinda A. Rasmussen with Julie Bradshaw, Barbara J. Christopherson, and Steven C. Huke Routledge, 1998
298 pages
http://www.routledge.com/books/Treating-Children-with-Sexually-Abusive-Behavior-Problems-isbn9780789004734  

Stages of Accomplishment
Four workbooks and a clinician guide
Phil Rich
NEARI Press

Understanding, Assessing, and Rehabilitating Juvenile Sexual Offenders
Phil Rich Safer Society Press, 2003
296 pages
http://www.safersociety.org/allbks/wp112.php  

When Children Abuse: Group Treatment Strategies for Children with Impulse Control Problems
Carolyn Cunningham and Kee MacFarlane
Safer Society Press, 2001
272 pages
http://www.safersociety.org/allbks/wp041.php  

Working with Young People Who Sexually Abuse: New Pieces of the Jigsaw Puzzle
Martin C. Calder, ed.
Russell House Publishing, 1999
320 pages
http://www.russellhouse.co.uk/  

Young Offenders: Sexual Abuse and Treatment
Anders Nyman, Olof Risberg, and Börje Svensson
Save the Children Sweden, 2001
180 pages
http://shop.rb.se/Product/Product.aspx?ItemId=2967842